Table 1. Parameters for advanced (v = 0.01 c) and solar-sail (v = 5E-4 c) microbial swarm missions to nearby stars and to the Rho Ophiuchus cloud.

 

 

d (ly)a

r (m)b

Dy (m)c

v (c)

0.01 5E-4

 

Nearby Stars

Alpha PsA

22.6

5.0E11

2.3E10 4.6E11

Beta Pic

52.8

1.3E12

1.3E11 2.5E12

 

Rho Ophiuchus Cloud

Dense Fragment

520

3E16

1.2E13 2.4E14

Protostellar

520

3E14

Early Accretion Disk

520

1.5E13

Late Accretion Disk

520

2.6E12

Young Stellar Object

520

5.3E11

 

 

d

Ptarget

v (c)

0.01 5E-4

e

Pplanet

v (c)

0.01 5E-4

m (kg)f

v (c)

0.01 5E-4

 

Nearby Stars

Alpha PsA

(4.7E2) (1.2E0)

1E-5 1.1E-5

1.1E-3 1.1E-3

Beta Pic

(1.0E2) 2.7E-1

1E-5 2.5E-6

1.1E-3 4.5E-3

 

Rho Ophiuchus Cloud

Dense Core

(6.3E6) (1.6E4)

1E-16 1E-16

1.1E8g 1.1E8g

Protostellar

(6.3E2) (1.6E0)

1E-13 1E-13

1.1E5 1.1E5

Early

(1.6E0) 3.9E-3

1E-11 3.9E-14

1.1E3 2.8E5

Late Accretion

4.7E-2 1.2E-4

1.5E-11 3.8E-14

7.5E2 2.9E5

Young Stellar

1.9E-3 4.9E-6

1.9E-8 4.9E-11

5.8E-1 2.2E2

 

a. Distance to the target.
b. Radius of the target objects. For planets, the radius of a circle with an area equal to that of the habitable zone i.e., r = 0.89rhz. alpha PsA and Beta Pic, rhz from ref. 5, for 1 solar mass young stellar object, rhz = 1 au. For the late accretion disk, radius of a circle with an area equal to a disk from 10 to 20 au.
c. Uncertainty in target position at arrival, from equation (1).
d. Probability of arrival within the target zone, from r2/(dy)2. For values of P > 1, shown in parentheses, the arrival probability is approximately unity.
e. Probability of capture by a planet in the habitable zone, obtained from Ptarget x Pcapture. For targeted planets, Pcapture = 1E-5; for other targeted objects, see text.
f. Launched biomass necessary for the capture of 100 capsules of 1.1E-10 kg at the target planet, calculated from 1.1E-8/Pplanet.
g. Mass requirements per planetary system. Note this mission requires launching 100 times the given masses, for distribution through the cloud.